Interfaces: Connecting Machine.
CALAO Systems develops and manufactures leading Embedded Computing Systems based on leading edge ARM processors and open source Linux software integrating state of the art interfaces Technologies with rich software libraries.
CALAO Systems integrates a wide range of industrial interfaces and protocols such as:
- RS232, RS422, RS485, CAN, M-Bus, Modbus,
- Standard USB High speed 2.0 interface in host, device and OTG configuration and USB 3.0
- Analog and digital I / O, 20mA
- SD card.
- Customer proprietary interfaces
- Ethernet (IEEE 802.3.) is the most widely used local network technology, Ethernet is using now a star topology either with twisted-pair (Short range few 100m), or optic fiber (several km range) cabling.
- And with the right connective equipment, multiple Ethernet-based LANs can be linked together. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection). In this method, multiple workstations access a transmission medium (multiple access) by listening until no signals are detected (carrier sense). Then they transmit and check to see if more than one signal is present (collision detection). Each station attempts to transmit when it "believes" the network is free. If there is a collision, each station attempts to retransmit after a preset delay, which is different for each workstation. When a collision is detected, a "jam" signal is propagated to all nodes. Each station that detects the collision will wait some period of time and then try again.
- All attached workstations are wired directly to a central hub (or switches) that establishes, maintains, and breaks connections between them (in the event of an error)..
- Ethernet network types:
- Fast Ethernet: Today the most popular network connection called Ethernet 10/100 is compatible with 10Mbits legacy Ethernet network and Fast Ethernet (100 base-TX) that provide 100Mbit/s on a 4 twisted pair cable of type cat-5 with a RJ45 plug , allowing a range of 100 meters. Fast Ethernet is used with optical fiber for long range ( several Km)
- Gigabit Ethernet: this interface delivering a data-rate of 1Gbit/s is going to be the new de-facto standard. Cable category used is the Cat 5e for twisted pair cables.
- 10 Gigabit Ethernet: last generation for very high speed connection application.